how did Americans disagree over the role of federal and state government before and during the civil war
From what I can remember, states' rights was a large factor contributing to the Civil War. With Lincoln becoming president and representing the North, the Southern states seceded, leading to a war. The state governments of the South argued that since the Constitution and federal government was created by the states, the federal government had no right to stop states from seceding. President Lincoln and other northerners disagreed and wanted to preserve the Union by stopping states from seceding. After the war, I believe the South still disagreed on a strong federal government. They wanted to rule the area by themselves.
The south wanted to govern their own states, and President Lincoln vetoed the idea and said they answered to the federal government, which in turn caused the South to secede.